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Oracle Exadata Database Machine 2014 Implementation Essentials

Question No: 11

Which two attributes describe key benefits of the InfiniBand network?

  1. All Exadata database servers have a direct path link to each Exadata Storage Server.

  2. Cell-to-cell communication uses Reliable Datagram Sockets (RDS) over InfiniBand to achieve low latency.

  3. Expanding from two Full racks to four only requires adding an external InfiniBand switch to be at the top of the fat-tree topology.

  4. Each InfiniBand link provides 10 Gigabits of bandwidth.

  5. Oracle#39;s interconnect protocol uses direct memory access (DMA) to eliminate buffer copies and reduce CPU use.

Answer: C,E

Explanation: C: Oracle Exadata is architected to scale-out to any level of performance. To achieve higher performance and greater storage capacity, additional database servers and Exadata cells are added to the configuration – e.g., Half Rack to Full Rack upgrade. As more Exadata cells are added to the configuration, storage capacity and I/O performance increases near linearly.

E: Oracle#39;s interconnect protocol uses direct data placement (DMA – direct memory access) to ensure very low CPU overhead by directly moving data from the wire to database buffers with no extra data copies being made. The InfiniBand network has the flexibility of a LAN network, with the efficiency of a SAN.

Incorrect:

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Not A: The architecture of the Exadata solution includes components on the database server and in the Exadata cell. The software architecture for a Quarter Rack configuration is shown below.

Not B: No cell-to-cell communication is ever done or required in an Exadata configuration. Not D: Each InfiniBand link provides 40 Gigabits of bandwidth –

Question No: 12

Identify three Exadata Storage Server software processes and their purpose?

  1. CELLSRV: The Cell Server is responsible for servicing disk I/O and predicate processing offload.

  2. CELLSRV: The Cell Server is responsible for balancing workload to other storage servers.

  3. MS: The Management Server is responsible for storage cell management and configuration.

  4. MS: The Management Server is responsible for starting a local Enterprise Manager

    agent.

  5. RS: The Restart Server is responsible for Automatic Storage Management (ASM) instance restart.

  6. RS: The Restart Server is responsible for CELLSRV and MS monitoring and restart.

Answer: A,C,F

Explanation: A: CELLSRV (Cell Services) is the primary component of the Exadata software running in the cell

and provides the majority of Exadata storage services. CELLSRV is multi-threaded software that

communicates with the database instance on the database server, and serves blocks to databases

based on the iDB protocol. It provides the advanced SQL offload capabilities, serves Oracle

blocks when SQL offload processing is not possible, and implements the DBRM I/O resource

management functionality to meter out I/O bandwidth to the various databases and consumer

groups issuing I/O.

C: The MS is the primary interface to administer, manage and query the

status of the Exadata cell. It works in cooperation with the Exadata cell command line interface

(CLI) and EM Exadata plug-in, and provides standalone Exadata cell management and configuration. For example, from the cell, CLI commands are issued to configure storage, query

I/O statistics and restart the cell. Also supplied is a distributed CLI so commands can be sent to

multiple cells to ease management across cells.

F: Restart Server (RS) ensures the ongoing

functioning of the Exadata software and services. It is used to update the Exadata software. It

also ensures storage services are started and running, and services are restarted when required.

Question No: 13

Which two statements are true about troubleshooting failed patching activities?

  1. Dependency issues found during yum updates require rolling back to a previous release before retrying.

  2. Bundle patches applied using opatch auto cannot roll back only the database or the grid infrastructure home.

  3. Failed OS patches on database servers can be rolled back.

  4. Failed storage cell patches are rolled back to the previous release automatically.

  5. Database server OS updates can be rolled back using opatch auto -rollback.

  6. Dependency issues found during yum updates should be ignored using the force option.

Answer: A,E

Explanation: * Oracle has shifted the strategy to patching the exadata in 11.2.3.2.0 onwards to using Yum as the method of patching.

  • Database servers are patched using yum; there is a yum channel for each Exadata image version. Recently, this functionality replaced the “minimal pack.”

  • In the README for each storage server patch, Oracle provides detailed rollback instructions that are to be followed in the event of a patch failure.

    Question No: 14

    Which two DML operations will add rows compressed by Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) to a table that is created to use HCC?

    1. INSERT

    2. insert with an append hint

    3. UPDATE

    4. CREATE TABLE AS SELECT

    Answer: B,D

    Explanation: To maximize storage savings with Hybrid Columnar Compression, data must be loaded using data warehouse bulk loading techniques. Examples of bulk load operations commonly used in data warehouse environments are:

  • Insert statements with the APPEND hint

  • Parallel DML

  • Direct Path SQL*LDR

  • Create Table as Select (CTAS)

  • Incorrect:

    Not A, Not C: DML operations (INSERT/UPDATE) against a Hybrid Columnar Compressed

    table/partition can reduce the overall compression savings over time since data INSERTED/UPDATED via DML operations will not be compressed to the same ratio as data that is bulk loaded.

    Question No: 15

    Your customer wants to increase the size of the DATA diskgroup on the Exadata systems. The customer is currently using 600 GB disks. Which two are the best options that you would recommend?

    1. adding a High Capacity Storage expansion rack

    2. expanding the Exadata rack from a Half Rack to a Full Rack

    3. moving underutilized grid disks from the RECO diskgroup to DATA

    4. adding a ZFS storage appliance

    5. adding a High Performance Storage expansion rack

    Answer: A,B

    Explanation: A: Oracle Exadata Storage Expansion Rack X4-2 enables you to grow the Oracle Exadata storage capacity and bandwidth of Oracle Exadata Database Machine X4- 2 and X3-8 and Oracle SuperCluster. It is designed for database deployments that require very large amounts of data, including historical or archive data; backups and archives of Oracle Exadata Database Machine data; documents; images; file and XML data; LOB#39;s; and other large unstructured data.

    Question No: 16

    What are two choices that a customer must make that impact diskgroup creation?

    1. What is the level of redundancy required?

    2. What OS will be run?

    3. Where will disk backups be written?

    4. How many databases will run on the cluster?

    Answer: A,B

    Explanation: B: There are a number of ASM disk group attributes that you can set when creating your disk groups, but the following

    are the most important:

    • (B) compatible.rdms: Set this to the software version of your RDBMS home.

    • au_size: Set this to 4 MB.

    • compatible.asm: Set this to the software version of your Grid Infrastructure home.

    • cell.smart_scan_capable: Set this to TRUE. If this attribute is set to FALSE, Smart Scan will be

      disabled to segments that reside in the disk group.

    • disk_repair_time: Leave this defaulted to 3.6 hours unless you’re performing maintenance on a call and know that your outage window will be greater than 3.6 hours.

    A:

    Once you identify candidate grid disks, use the CREATE DISKGROUP command to create your ASM disk groups.

    Here are some of the more important considerations to think about when creating ASM disk groups on Exadata:

    * (A) When capacity planning, take your redundancy specification into consideration.

    Normal

    redundancy will have the effect of reducing your usable storage to half the raw capacity, and

    high redundancy will shrink it to a third of your raw disk capacity.

    • Simplicity is best on Exadata. Using wild-carded CREATE DISKGROUP syntax not only offers the most terse command syntax, but also ensures your ASM disk groups are spread evenly across your Exadata Storage Server disks.

    • Take the time to plan grid disk prefix names and overall grid disk configuration in the context

      of your desired ASM disk group design.

    • Make sure to set the appropriate compatible.asm and compatible.rdbms attributes when creating ASM disk groups.

    • Whenever possible, use a 4 MB extent size when creating disk groups on ASM storage.

    Question No: 17

    When would be the best time to run an Exadata health check (exachk)?

    1. before patching, before upgrades, before backups, and on a regular basis

    2. after patching, after upgrades, and after backups

    3. only when advised by Oracle Support

    4. before and after patching, when advised by Oracle Support, and on a regular basis

    5. only after a hardware failure

    6. monthly and after a hardware failure

    Answer: D

    Explanation: #1: Check for updates frequently.

    #2: Execute before amp; after system changes.

    #3: Make part of regular planned maintenance

    Question No: 18

    Which two statements describe correct network configuration for Exadata Database Machine?

    1. The InfiniBand network subnet manager runs on all database servers to achieve High Availability.

    2. Oracle Clusterware communication is configured to use the management network.

    3. The InfiniBand network interfaces on Linux servers are configured using active-passive bonding.

    4. Database connections to the SCAN listener route through the Ethernet switch in the Exadata rack.

    5. Database servers are deployed with three logical network interfaces configured: management, client access, and private.

    Answer: C,D Explanation: Incorrect:

    Not A: The InfiniBand switches use an OpenSMInfiniBand subnet manager to manage the switch configuration.

    Question No: 19

    How would you execute CellCLI commands and scripts?

    1. using SQL*Plus on database nodes

    2. by CellCLI commands executed on the database nodes

    3. using third party tools after installing the CellCLI RPM plug-in

    4. directly executing the commands and scripts on the Exadata storage cell

    5. remotely by connecting to Port 1521 using SSL

    Answer: D

    Explanation: The storage cells in Exadata Database Machine are managed via two tools called CellCLI and DCLI.

    Question No: 20 CORRECT TEXT

    Which two statements are true about migrating your database to Exadata?

    1. Because Exadata uses InfiniBand, in order to migrate your database to Exadata, you must have InfiniBand on the system that you are migrating from.

    2. Using Data Guard Physical Standby to migrate from an 11.1 database to Exadata is beneficial because it allows you to adopt HCC during migration.

    3. ASM and database best practice configuration supplied during Exadata deployment should be retained during and after migration,

    4. Logical migration methods allow more flexibility than physical methods to change the database structure for best performance.

    5. All indexes should be dropped when migrating to Exadata.

    Answer: CD

    Answer: Databases on Exadata use ASM. Incorrect:

    Not A: 3 network choices: 10 Gb/s Ethernet

    40 Gb/s InfiniBand

    1 Gb/s Ethernet (No fibre channel)

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